The Department of Economic and Social History promotes an integrative approach in conducting research and teaching in the fields of economic history, social history and cultural history, as well as – in cooperation with other history departments – didactics of history. It analyses and teaches economic, social and cultural developments at a global, national, regional and local scale up to the present. Hereby, boundaries of conventional periodization are dissolved. Special attention is given to intercultural comparisons and the examination of global interdependencies. The Department aims at comprehending and conveying social, economic and cultural phenomena in their mutual interdependencies and their political implications. It has been due to this overall approach to research and teaching that the Department was able to occupy a special position both within the University of Vienna and within the international field. The academic teaching, lectures and publications of the Department’s staff are directed at addressees within and without the scientific world (students, graduates, teachers and other professional groups). The Department’s staff consider their dedication in academic teaching and in adult and professional further education as a commitment to democracy.
The Department occupies a very special position within the Faculty of History and Cultural Sciences, as its curriculum transcends the fields of History, respectively History, Social Studies and Political Education, benefiting various branches of study, both from our faculty and from others. Thus, the Department has shaped its own, specific, academic identity due to its orientation both towards social-science based history and cultural studies inspired history. Moreover, the Department takes part in the teaching tasks of the Faculty of Business, Economics and Statistics lecturing economic history within the scope of the diploma studies International Business Administration, Business Administration and Economics.
The special position the Department of Economic and Social History occupies in Austria can only be understood from a historical perspective. Founded in 1922 and reactivated in 1959, it has always been the only department of this name in Austria functioning within a Faculty of Humanities and Cultural Studies. All other departments bearing this name are part of faculties of Economics or Social Studies. Particular development opportunities arose out of this situation.
Economic history, the way it has been defined and perceived within the Department ever since its establishment, has never confined itself to economic models or to the history of economic institutions. It deals with all economic aspects of social life and the economic relationships between individuals and social groups. It analyses the agents, specific media and institutions of economic activity in their development in time, their geographic specificity and their integration in terms of division of labour, as well as the resulting economic forms and systems. These elements are not examined individually; rather, they are regarded as being embedded in social relationships at large. Thus, economic history always examines the political, social and cultural implications of economic phenomena and, on the other hand, identifies the economic implications of political, social and cultural structures and processes. It captures the differentiation of various economic sectors and their respective institutional environment; the technical, institutional and media bases of economic processes; the formation and functioning of factor, product and service markets; the development in time of production output, wages and prices; the history of individual enterprises and their company culture (Business History), as well as the appropriation and division of the economic product in different epochs, economic systems and regions.
Social history, as a basic approach, focuses on the development of social relationships and groups on micro-, meso- and macro-levels. Its analysis concentrates primarily on forms, causes and effects of social disparity and social conflicts based on the one hand on material inequality, on the other hand on gender, religious, ethnic and other incongruities. For one thing, it reconstructs social systems and structures such as states, cities, communities, parishes, manorial systems, households and so forth; for another, it reconstructs the social actions of individual and collective agents in such systems and structures, to which end it avails itself of concepts from the realm of social studies, like “life-world”, “social reality” and categories as experience, practice, or daily routine. Social reality emerges hereby on the one hand out of conditions that can be defined as structuredness or constitution of the social, the economic or the political, on the other hand out of the actions and interpretations of the agents who encounter these structures and replicate or modify them through their actions. The latter attributes social relevance to perceptions, construals and denotations, myths, metaphors, rituals and so forth.
Cultural history focuses on the contribution of norms, construals, denotations, discourses, ideologies and religions to the configuration of social relationships, also concentrating on the structure of bodies of knowledge, construals and denotations. Utilising narration, most notably biographies, individual and “collective memories”, “sites of memory”, etc., it further analyses the construction of individual and social identities. It examines regional, national, European and other mythologies, along with the social construction and the tendency towards assertion of normative paradigms applicable to family life, sexuality, child-rearing, youth, old age and so forth. Not least of all, it investigates the constructs of historiography and history teaching, which create legitimisation or, alternatively, critical perspectives. Its empirical work employs, along with conventional text and image analysis techniques, new methods and procedures of discourse analysis, of historical epistemology, of conceptual history, of structural hermeneutics, of image and film analysis and of semiotics. In terms of cultural studies, the establishment of these techniques has led to an expansion of social and economic history; the borders to genuine social or economic history research and teaching remain blurred.
Cross-regional and global interdependencies have been brought to the fore on a global scale due to current integration and de-integration processes. The Department’s tradition of transcending epochs and of intercultural comparison is conducive to an enhanced understanding of economic, social and cultural change in various regions of the world. This core area is pursued in cooperation with other research and teaching fields (geography, sociology, political science), as well as with numerous area studies pertaining to South and East Asia, Africa, and Latin America. This resulted in the establishment of the professorship “International Social and Economic History with particular consideration of Global History” (focus on the Early Modern Period), in periodical lecture series with alternating lecturers featuring extra-European and global history topics, as well as in participation in the degree programmes “International Development”, “Global History” and “Global Studies”. In this context, the Department initiated several series of publications.
Communication and didactics of history, as a basic approach, analyses and teaches ways and means for knowledge on economic, social and cultural developments to be processed and communicated in a manner conducive to political education, proactive practice orientation and the ability for critical communication. It perceives itself as applied historical study in the interplay of practical teaching experience and theory-based reflection. In its specific implementation as technical didactics, it carries out the development and conveyance of theoretical bases and practical teaching competencies aimed at teaching staff in secondary academic and vocational schools, in institutions of adult education, in historical museums and exhibitions. New media and e-learning are employed in university and secondary school history teaching, while appropriate online courses and blended learning concepts and applications are being developed. “Process-orientated history didactics” includes up-to-date organisational theories, theories of social systems and theories of social learning. Moreover, Technical Didactics Centre for “History, Social Studies and Political Education” is closely connected to the Department both in teaching and in relation to the staff.
The teacher formation for the specialisation History and Social Studies, respectively History, Social Studies and Political Education, promotes integration of social, economic and cultural aspects. This, being consistent with the new social-scientific orientation of the discipline from the 1970s on, led to the foundation of the teacher continuing education periodical Beiträge zur historischen Sozialkunde [Contributions to Historical Social Studies], which addresses an audience far beyond the specialised circles. Other pertinent publications, as well as numerous activities geared towards teacher further education, fell in line with the periodical. The Department’s didactic efforts are also directed at adult education. The Dokumentation lebensgeschichtlicher Aufzeichnungen [Collection of Biographical Records] and its segue, the series of autobiographical testimonies published under the title Damit es nicht verlorengeht… [Lest We Forget…], deserve being mentioned here. These, alongside its special commitment to history didactics and communication, are defining traits of the Department.
The structure of the Department also includes synergies in terms of the approaches outlined above: while the specified aspects require specialisation in theories, paradigms, methodology and techniques, social, economic and cultural history research must remain compatible with the associated didactics. This has been achieved by the Department in a broad range of topics (History of Nation Building, History of Colonialism and Imperialism, History of World Economy, History of Social and Regional Inequality and Asynchronism, Urban History, History of Technology, History of the Family, Business and Financial History, Rural History, History of Consumption, History of Medicine and Drugs, History of Sexuality, History of Knowledge and Science, History of Nutrition, History of Population, History of Everyday Life, Historical Anthropology and so forth). Some of these fields of special interest will be further explored, others will be added. At the same time, specialisation does not alter the Department’s integral profile in research and teaching. The triad consisting of economic system, social life and cultural production is conceivable for most current and future topics and total separation of one aspect from the corresponding ones is expressly undesired.
Current research, respectively research projects carried out by the staff of the Department of Social and Economic History can be viewed in detail under ‘Research
Professors and lecturers of the Department teach within the framework of undergraduate and graduate degree courses of History. We offer general and specialised lecture courses on European economic, social and cultural history from late antiquity until the twentieth century across historical periods. In addition, transcending the boundaries of epochs, secular socio-economic developments are presented in longitudinal perspective, while synchronous interdependencies are dealt with in transverse and comparative perspective. In the last years Global history has increasingly gained importance within the range of available courses. The wide topic spectrum of courses offered (see up-to-date study guide) mirrors the broad range of fields of interest of the Department´s researchers.
An introduction in methods of historical and social sciences constitutes a corner stone of the teaching carried out at the Department. Courses in the use of information technology in historical studies (data bases, statistical analysis, source-orientated data processing, historical cartography, Internet applications for historical studies, digital sources), in interviewing techniques (narrative and biographical interviews, expert interviews, etc.), as well as in text analysis (sequential analysis, discourse analysis techniques, etc.) are offered on a permanent basis.
Further fields of special interest are lectures on the theory of science, alongside seminars geared towards didactic-pedagogical education for the branch of study History and Social Studies (degree for secondary-level school teaching).
Alongside university teaching, several Department members are involved in further education (addressing teachers, social workers, therapists and other professional groups), as well as in adult education.
The Department participates with four contracts in the European Union’s SOCRATES programme of student and teacher mobility. Partnership contracts exist with Istituto Universitario Europeo (European University Institute) in Fiesole/Florence (IT), with Freie Universität (Free University) and Humboldt Universität Berlin (D) and with Univerzita Karlova Charles University in Prague (CZ).
Publications of the Department of Economic and Social History
Due to the research and teaching focus on didactics, the Department has been publishing since the 1970s the teachers’ continuing education and history teaching periodical Beiträge zur historischen Sozialkunde [Contributions to Historical Social Studies], since 2002 titled Historische Sozialkunde [Historical Social Studies] as well as several series of textbooks. We are involved in the publishing and editorial activities of scholarly periodicals (among others: Agricultural History Review, European History Quarterly, Historische Anthropologie, Journal of Global History, L'Homme, Österreich in Geschichte und Literatur – ÖGL, Österreichische Zeitschrift für Geschichtswissenschaften – ÖZG). It is also the Department’s staff who is responsible for the publishing of Sozial- und wirtschaftshistorische Studien [Social and Economic History Studies] and the biographical series Damit es nicht verloren geht ... [Lest we forget ...]